In this work temperature is measured in kelvin (K) to convert a temperature in degrees Celsius (^{o}C) just add on 273.

For example a temperature of 35 ^{o}C is 35 + 273 = 308 K

## Specific heat capacity (c)

The specific heat capacity of a material is the amount of energy (Q) needed to raise 1 kg of a material through a temperature change of 1 kelvin.

Q = energy in / or out of the material in joules (J)

m = mass of the material in kilograms (kg)

c = the specific heat capacity of the material in J kg^{-1} K^{-1}

DT = change in temperature in kelvin (K)

## Latent heat (L)

Latent heat is taken in / or given out when a material changes state e.g. solid to liquid or liquid to gas.

Q = energy in / or out of the material in joules (J)

m = mass of the material which has changed state in kilograms (kg)

L = the latent heat in J kg^{-1}

When a material goes from solid to liquid or liquid to solid it is called the **latent heat of fusion**.

When a material goes from a liquid to gas or gas to a liquid it is called the **latent heat of vaporisation**.